In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Assumption of the Virgin Mary is believed, and celebrated with her Dormition, where they believe she died. [152][153] In addition, some Methodists also hold the doctrine of the Assumption of Mary as a pious opinion. Do not go beyond the bounds in your religion, and do not say anything of Allah but the truth. And I will send him as an apostle to the Children of Israel." North Vicariate. [74][75][76], In the 19th century, a house near Ephesus in Turkey was found, based on the visions of Anne Catherine Emmerich, an Augustinian nun in Germany. And concerning this utterly stupid argument . “The first thing which kindles ardor in learning is the greatness of the teacher. [154], Nontrinitarians, such as Unitarians, Christadelphians, Jehovah's Witnesses, and Latter Day Saints[155] also acknowledge Mary as the biological mother of Jesus Christ, but most reject any immaculate conception and do not recognize Marian titles such as "Mother of God". Overall, there are significantly more titles, feasts and venerative Marian practices among Roman Catholics than any other Christians traditions. [148], Methodists do not have any additional teachings on the Virgin Mary except from what is mentioned in Scripture and the ecumenical Creeds. The Nativity of the Blessed Virgin is kept on 8 September. n.p. "[125] However, Calvin firmly rejected the notion that Mary can intercede between Christ and man. [104], Mary's participation in the processes of salvation and redemption has also been emphasized in the Catholic tradition, but they are not doctrines. It is tricky to translate in English. Catholics place high emphasis on Mary's roles as protector and intercessor and the Catechism refers to Mary as "honored with the title 'Mother of God,' to whose protection the faithful fly in all their dangers and needs". [85], Prayers and venerative practices vary greatly. This veneration especially takes the form of prayer for intercession with her Son, Jesus Christ. For if our Lord Jesus Christ is God, how should the holy Virgin who bore him not be the Mother of God?” (Letter to the Monks of Egypt 1 [A.D. 427]). [146][147], Certain Lutheran churches such as the Anglo-Lutheran Catholic Church however, continue to venerate Mary and the saints in the same manner that Roman Catholics do, and hold all Marian dogmas as part of their faith. “We confess, then, our Lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God, perfect God and perfect man, of a rational soul and a body, begotten before all ages from the Father in his Godhead, the same in the last days, for us and for our salvation, born of Mary the Virgin according to his humanity, one and the same consubstantial with the Father in Godhead and consubstantial with us in humanity, for a union of two natures took place. [79][80][81][82] The Gospel of John states that Mary went to live with the Disciple whom Jesus loved,[Jn 19:27] identified as John the Evangelist. “The Father bears witness from heaven to his Son. 'God-bearer' or loosely "Mother of God"), Aeiparthenos (Greek: ἀειπαρθὲνος, lit. He held fast to the belief that Mary was a perpetual virgin and Mother of God. [129] All the member churches of the Anglican Communion affirm in the historic creeds that Jesus was born of the Virgin Mary, and celebrates the feast days of the Presentation of Christ in the Temple. There is a difference between the usage of the term "blessed" as pertaining to Mary and its usage as pertaining to a beatified person. This the declaration of the correct faith proclaims everywhere. [86] The four Catholic dogmas regarding Mary are: her status as Theotokos, or Mother of God; her perpetual virginity; her Immaculate Conception; and her bodily Assumption into heaven. 'Color of the Cross' puts a different face on the debate", TV airing for Islam's story of Christ – Media – The Guardian, "The Muslim Jesus, ITV─Unreality Primetime", "Roma Downey and Diogo Morgado on Faith and Filming Son of God", "Mary Magdalene attempts to wash away biblical character's stains of ill repute", "Mary Versus Eve: Paternal Uncertainty and the Christian View of Women", Church Fathers on the Sinless Nature of Mary, Church Fathers on the Perpetual Virginity of Mary, Veneration of Mary in the Catholic Church, Historical background of the New Testament, New Testament places associated with Jesus, Names and titles of Jesus in the New Testament, Basilica of The National Shrine of Our Lady of Fatima (Lewiston New York), A Pathway Under the Gaze of Mary: Biography of Sister Maria Lucia of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart, International Alliance of Catholic Knights, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mary,_mother_of_Jesus&oldid=994677367, Articles containing Aramaic-language text, Pages with numeric Bible version references, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles containing Italian-language text, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from September 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Articles lacking reliable references from December 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2016, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Date unknown; traditionally celebrated 8 September (. She had recently become engaged to a carpenter named Joseph. . [227] Both Roman Catholic and Orthodox Christians venerate images and icons of Mary, given that the Second Council of Nicaea in 787 permitted their veneration with the understanding that those who venerate the image are venerating the reality of the person it represents,[228] and the 842 Synod of Constantinople confirming the same. [122], Some early Protestants venerated Mary. [27] This doctrine is widely accepted by Christians in general, and the term Mother of God had already been used within the oldest known prayer to Mary, the Sub tuum praesidium which dates to around 250 AD. [93] Marian devotions are at times linked to Christocentric devotions (e.g. Mary is the “mother of God” in the sense that, since Jesus is God and Mary is the mother of Jesus, she is the mother of God. Although Mary did not “originate” or “generate” God, she did bear Him in her womb and give birth to Him. “And since the holy Virgin corporeally brought forth God made one with flesh according to nature, for this reason we also call her Mother of God, not as if the nature of the Word had the beginning of its existence from the flesh” (Third Letter to Nestorius [A.D. 430]). What the Early Church Believed: Mary is the Mother of God. [225], Devotions to artistic depictions of Mary vary among Christian traditions. [222] Similarly Theologian Sergei Bulgakov wrote that the Orthodox view Mary as "superior to all created beings" and "ceaselessly pray for her intercession". The key Marian doctrines held primarily in Catholicism can be briefly outlined as follows: She consents to God’s invitation conveyed by the angel (Luke 1:26-38). [150][151] Contemporary Methodism does hold that Mary was a virgin before, during, and immediately after the birth of Christ. This story provides the theme of many hymns for the Feast of Presentation of Mary, and icons of the feast depict the story. [213][214] According to William E. Phipps, in the book Survivals of Roman Religion[215] "Gordon Laing argues convincingly that the worship of Artemis as both virgin and mother at the grand Ephesian temple contributed to the veneration of Mary. Thus, too, they preached of the advent of God in the flesh to the world, his advent by the spotless and God-bearing (theotokos) Mary in the way of birth and growth” (Discourse on the End of the World 1 [A.D. 217]). NIHIL OBSTAT: I have concluded that the materials [25] Catholics use a wide variety of titles for Mary, and these titles have in turn given rise to many artistic depictions. . Beaver/Freedom/New Brighton/Rochester. The most detailed account of the annunciation and birth of Jesus is provided in Suras 3 and 19 of the Quran, where it is written that God sent an angel to announce that she could shortly expect to bear a son, despite being a virgin. 157 South Triangle Road | Hillsborough, NJ 08844 Phone: 908-874-8220 | Fax: 908-874-4183 office@marymotherofgod.org [167] Robert Van Voorst states that because Toledot Yeshu is a medieval document with its lack of a fixed form and orientation towards a popular audience, it is "most unlikely" to have reliable historical information. Mary, Mother of God. 'All-holy'). The Perpetual Virginity of Mary asserts Mary's real and perpetual virginity even in the act of giving birth to the Son of God made Man. There is a long tradition of Catholic Marian art and no image permeates Catholic art as does the image of Madonna and Child. 'You will find him in a manger'. [citation needed] In 1997 and 1998 ecumenical dialogues between Catholics and Protestants took place, but, to date, the majority of Protestants disagree with Marian veneration and some view it as a challenge to the authority of Scripture. But reason says the opposite: . “Being perfect at the side of the Father and incarnate among us, not in appearance but in truth, he [the Son] reshaped man to perfection in himself from Mary the Mother of God through the Holy Spirit” (The Man Well-Anchored 75 [A.D. 374]). The historicity of this census' relationship to the birth of Jesus continues to be one of scholarly disagreement; see e.g. Solemnity of Mary, Mother of God Mass Times . “Though still a virgin she carried a child in her womb, and the handmaid and work of his wisdom became the Mother of God” (Songs of Praise 1:20 [A.D. 351]). [128] Thus unlike the Protestant churches at large, the Anglican Communion includes segments which still retain some veneration of Mary. This tradition can trace its origin to the Byzantine Empire, from c.500 AD, where blue was "the colour of an empress". A faith in Christ which does not include his mother is another faith, another Christianity from that of the Orthodox church. Access the Youtube channel by clicking the icon on the side of this site. [203][204][205], The Council of Ephesus itself was held at a church in Ephesus which had been dedicated to Mary about a hundred years before. While in the temple, Mary was miraculously fed by an angel, until she was twelve years old. This representation is called a Stabat Mater. Have faith that Jesus will come through. let us prove by divine testimonies both that Christ is God and that Mary is the Mother of God” (On the Incarnation of Christ Against Nestorius 2:2 [A.D. 429]). Ships from United States. Mary, also called St. Mary or the Virgin Mary, (flourished beginning of the Christian era), the mother of Jesus, venerated in the Christian church since the apostolic age and a favourite subject in Western art, music, and literature. His views are intimately linked to his Christocentric theology and its consequences for liturgy and piety. The term was used as part of the popular piety of the early first millennium church. “For Luke, in the inspired Gospel narratives, delivers a testimony not to Joseph only, but also to Mary, the Mother of God, and gives this account with reference to the very family and house of David” (Four Homilies 1 [A.D. 262]). [Lk 1:56-57], According to the author of the gospel according to Luke, a decree of the Roman Emperor Augustus required that Joseph return to his hometown of Bethlehem to register for a Roman census; see Census of Quirinius. But if he is God, as he certainly is, then she who bore God is the Mother of God” (ibid., 2:5). [217] The Virgin's popularity increased dramatically from the 12th century. Hence, it was an expression of devotion and glorification to swathe the Virgin in gowns of blue. Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, Seminarians, and Consecrated Persons, Alternately: "It cannot even be denied that God conferred the highest honour on Mary, by choosing and appointing her to be the mother of his Son. Despite Martin Luther's harsh polemics against his Roman Catholic opponents over issues concerning Mary and the saints, theologians appear to agree that Luther adhered to the Marian decrees of the ecumenical councils and dogmas of the church. Mary has an important role to play in the Incarnation of the Second Person of the Blessed Trinity. With the queenship Mary has been given by her Son, Mary offers abiding mercy and compassion, interceding for all of God’s children. Catholics believe in the Immaculate Conception of Mary, as proclaimed ex cathedra by Pope Pius IX in 1854, namely that she was filled with grace from the very moment of her conception in her mother's womb and preserved from the stain of original sin. [citation needed] The tone of the Second Vatican Council began to mend the ecumenical differences, and Protestants began to show interest in Marian themes. Roman Catholics view Mary as subordinate to Christ, but uniquely so, in that she is seen as above all other creatures. "[211] Conversely, Carl Olson and Sandra Miesel dispute the idea that Christianity copied elements of Isis's iconography, saying that the symbol of a mother and her child is part of the universal human experience. Mary was given to service as a consecrated virgin in the Temple in Jerusalem when she was three years old, much like Hannah took Samuel to the Tabernacle as recorded in the Old Testament. [195], From the early stages of Christianity, belief in the virginity of Mary and the virgin conception of Jesus, as stated in the gospels, holy and supernatural, was used by detractors, both political and religious, as a topic for discussions, debates and writings, specifically aimed to challenge the divinity of Jesus and thus Christians and Christianity alike. "[158], Since most non-trinitarian groups are typically also Christian mortalists, Mary is not seen as an intercessor between humankind and Jesus, whom mortalists would consider "asleep", awaiting resurrection. [43], The Quran relates detailed narrative accounts of Maryam (Mary) in two places, Quran 3:35–47 and 19:16–34. Hail, you fount of the Son’s love for man. Mary, Mother of God Roman Catholic Church. [112] Within the Orthodox tradition, the order of the saints begins with: The Theotokos, Angels, Prophets, Apostles, Fathers, Martyrs, etc. Both Martin Luther and John Calvin insisted on Mary’s divine maternity. [Rev 12:1], Her death is not recorded in the scriptures, but Catholic and Orthodox tradition and doctrine have her assumed (taken bodily) into Heaven. Mary is also depicted as being present among the women at the crucifixion during the crucifixion standing near "the disciple whom Jesus loved" along with Mary of Clopas and Mary Magdalene,[Jn 19:25-26] to which list Matthew 27:56 adds "the mother of the sons of Zebedee", presumably the Salome mentioned in Mark 15:40. The Catholic Church holds distinctive Marian dogmas, namely her status as the Mother of God, her Immaculate Conception, her perpetual virginity, and her Assumption into heaven. One of the most loved Orthodox Akathists (i.e. [24] Titles in use vary among Anglicans, Lutherans, Catholics, Orthodox, Protestants, Mormons, and other Christians. [Leviticus 12:1-8] They also presented Jesus – "As it is written in the law of the Lord, Every male that openeth the womb shall be called holy to the Lord" (Luke 2:23other verses). Tabernacle of God and the Word! [90][100][101][102][103] Key Marian prayers include: Ave Maria, Alma Redemptoris Mater, Sub tuum praesidum, Ave maris stella, Regina caeli, Ave Regina caelorum and the Magnificat. It is God, then, who has given it. [139][140][141] "Throughout his career as a priest-professor-reformer, Luther preached, taught, and argued about the veneration of Mary with a verbosity that ranged from childlike piety to sophisticated polemics. [126], Although Calvin and Huldrych Zwingli honored Mary as the Mother of God in the 16th century, they did so less than Martin Luther. [18] The English name Mary comes from the Greek Μαρία, which is a shortened form of Μαριάμ. “Do not marvel at the novelty of the thing, if a Virgin gives birth to God” (Commentaries on Isaiah 3:7:15 [A.D. 409]). [115] "Let Mary be in honor, but let worship be given to the Lord", he wrote. [239] It is included in the two most widely used Christian creeds, which state that Jesus "was incarnate of the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary" (the Nicene Creed in what is now its familiar form)[240] and the Apostles' Creed. For example, the title Our Lady of Sorrows has inspired such masterpieces as Michelangelo's Pietà. For instance, the title "Queen Mother" has been given to Mary since she was the mother of Jesus, who was sometimes referred to as the "King of Kings" due to his ancestral descent from King David. Add to cart . [49][50][51] (Aaron's wife Elisheba was of the tribe of Judah, so all their descendants are from both Levi and Judah. Monday - Friday: 8:00 a.m. Saturday: 4:00 p.m. Sunday: 7:15 a.m. - 8:30 a.m. - 11:00 a.m. She is said to have miraculously appeared to believers many times over the centuries. [111] The Orthodox believe that she was and remained a virgin before and after Christ's birth. Suddenly her life changed forever. [143][144] His final thoughts on Marian devotion and veneration are preserved in a sermon preached at Wittenberg only a month before his death: Therefore, when we preach faith, that we should worship nothing but God alone, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, as we say in the Creed: 'I believe in God the Father almighty and in Jesus Christ,' then we are remaining in the temple at Jerusalem. Anglicans also celebrate in the Visitation of the Blessed Virgin on 31 May, though in some provinces the traditional date of 2 July is kept. “I have been amazed that some are utterly in doubt as to whether or not the holy Virgin is able to be called the Mother of God. Others maintain that Luther in later years changed his position on the Immaculate Conception, which, at that time was undefined in the Church, maintaining however the sinlessness of Mary throughout her life. “If anyone does not agree that holy Mary is Mother of God, he is at odds with the Godhead” (Letter to Cledonius the Priest 101 [A.D. 382]). Fundamentalists are sometimes horrified when the Virgin Mary is referred to as the Mother of God. Give up (this assertion) – (it is) for your own good (to do so). "Between the Crèche and the Cross: Another Look at the Mother of Jesus in the New Testament". [233][234], Differences in feasts may also originate from doctrinal issues—the Feast of the Assumption is such an example. The term Ever-Virgin (Greek ἀειπάρθενος) is applied in this case, stating that Mary remained a virgin for the remainder of her life, making Jesus her biological and only son, whose conception and birth are held to be miraculous. Amen. “We acknowledge the resurrection of the dead, of which Jesus Christ our Lord became the firstling; he bore a body not in appearance but in truth derived from Mary the Mother of God” (Letter to All Non-Egyptian Bishops 12 [A.D. 324]). [25] The Theotokia (i.e., hymns to the Theotokos) are an essential part of the Divine Services in the Eastern Church and their positioning within the liturgical sequence effectively places the Theotokos in the most prominent place after Christ. [165] The circulation of the Toledot Yeshu was widespread among European and Middle Eastern Jewish communities since the 9th century. What, us? Again, the Assumption of Mary is believed in by most Anglo-Catholics, but is considered a pious opinion by moderate Anglicans. Theotokos basically explains the incarnation of Christ. "[216], The Middle Ages saw many legends about Mary, her parents, and even her grandparents. He is the equivalent of Joachim in Christian tradition. After the prophecies of Simeon and the prophetess Anna in Luke 2:25-38, the family "returned into Galilee, to their own city Nazareth". giving the Virgin Mary precedence over the angels. There is no way out of this logical syllogism. [87][88][89], The Blessed Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus has a more central role in Roman Catholic teachings and beliefs than in any other major Christian group. Sabine R. Huebner's succinct analysis of the issue. Virgin of Montserrat from Puerto Rico, ca. To understand the title, “Mother of God,” we must first clearly understand Mary’s role as mother of our Savior, Jesus Christ. God's grace fills her with everything good and makes her devoid of all evil. O God, who are without beginning or end, the source of all creation, grant us so to live this new year, whose beginning we dedicate to … Mother of God (TheotoKos) From antiquity, Mary has been called "Theotokos", or "God-Bearer". [19] The word "until" has inspired considerable analysis on the subject of Mary and Joseph producing siblings after the birth of Jesus; see e.g. [113] Five of the twelve Great Feasts in Orthodoxy are dedicated to Mary. [36][37][38][39], In Islam, she is known as Maryam (Arabic: مريم‎, romanized: Maryām), mother of Isa (Arabic: عيسى بن مريم‎, romanized: ʿĪsā ibn Maryām, lit. [230], The Anglican position towards Mary is in general more conciliatory than that of Protestants at large and in a book he wrote about praying with the icons of Mary, Rowan Williams, former archbishop of Canterbury, said: "It is not only that we cannot understand Mary without seeing her as pointing to Christ; we cannot understand Christ without seeing his attention to Mary."[85][231]. "[115], Although the Catholics and the Orthodox may honor and venerate Mary, they do not view her as divine, nor do they worship her. Transformations in visual depictions of the Virgin from the 13th to 15th centuries mirror her "social" standing within the Church as well as in society. [69] The idea that she was allowed in the Holy of Holies is a patent impossibility (probably blasphemy for Ancient Jews). The birth of Mary is narrated in the Quran with references to her father as well as her mother. Burke, Raymond L.; et al. [20] “As to how a virgin became the Mother of God, he [Rufinus] has full knowledge; as to how he himself was born, he knows nothing” (Against Rufinus 2:10 [A.D. 401]). Since Mary is Jesus’ mother, it must be concluded that she is also the Mother of God: If Mary is the mother of Jesus, and if Jesus is God, then Mary is the Mother of God. "Blessed" as a Marian title refers to her exalted state as being the greatest among the saints; for a person who has been declared beatified, on the other hand, "blessed" simply indicates that they may be venerated despite not being officially canonized. [17], In a narration of Hadith from Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq, he mentions that Allah revealed to Imran, "I will grant you a boy, blessed, one who will cure the blind and the leper and one who will raise the dead by My permission. The direct equivalents of title in Latin are Deipara and Dei Genetrix, although the phrase is more often loosely translated into Latin as Mater Dei (Mother of God), with similar patterns for other languages used in the Latin Church. The Islamic scripture recounts the Divine Promise given to Mary as being: "Mary! Mary has been portrayed in various films and on television, including: Mary nursing the Infant Jesus. “Hail to you forever, you virgin Mother of God, our unceasing joy, for unto you do I again return. Although Mary is the Mother of God, she is not his mother in the sense that she is older than God or the source of her Son’s divinity, for she is neither. [229] According to Orthodox piety and traditional practice, however, believers ought to pray before and venerate only flat, two-dimensional icons, and not three-dimensional statues. [133], Historically, there has been enough common ground between Roman Catholics and Anglicans on Marian issues that in 2005 a joint statement called Mary: grace and hope in Christ was produced through ecumenical meetings of Anglicans and Roman Catholic theologians. Given that there is no agreement among all Christians on the circumstances of the death, Dormition or Assumption of Mary, the feast of assumption is celebrated among some denominations and not others. John Damascene (c. 650–c. [124] John Calvin remarked, "It cannot be denied that God in choosing and destining Mary to be the Mother of his Son, granted her the highest honor. So you have the picture of God as angry and Christ as judge; Mary shows to Christ her breast and Christ shows his wounds to the wrathful Father. The Gospel of Matthew does give a genealogy for Jesus by his father's paternal line, only identifying Mary as the wife of Joseph. [5] According to Christian theology she conceived Jesus through the Holy Spirit while still a virgin. [26], The title Theotokos was recognized at the Council of Ephesus in 431. In certain Anglo-Catholic parishes this feast is called the Immaculate Conception. [159][160], The issue of the parentage of Jesus in the Talmud affects also the view of his mother. Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (later Pope Benedict XVI) suggested a redirection of the whole Church towards the program of Pope John Paul II in order to ensure an authentic approach to Christology via a return to the "whole truth about Mary,"[110] writing: "It is necessary to go back to Mary if we want to return to that 'truth about Jesus Christ,' 'truth about the Church' and 'truth about man. [224] The definition of the three level hierarchy of latria, hyperdulia and dulia goes back to the Second Council of Nicaea in 787. The Annunciation is called the "Annunciation of our Lady" in the 1662 Book of Common Prayer. Wherefore, we pray you, the most excellent among women, who boast in the confidence of your maternal honors, that you would unceasingly keep us in remembrance. Some[who?] She is often referred to by the honorific title sayyidatuna, meaning "our lady"; this title is in parallel to sayyiduna ("our lord"), used for the prophets. Given that according to the Gospel of Luke (Luke 2:22–40), forty days after the birth of Jesus, along with the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple Mary was purified according to Jewish customs, the Feast of the Purification began to be celebrated by the 5th century, and became the "Feast of Simeon" in Byzantium. The Church Fathers, of course, agreed, and the following passages witness to their lively recognition of the sacred truth and great gift of divine maternity that was bestowed upon Mary. According to Sabrina Higgins, "When looking at images of the Egyptian goddess Isis and those of the Virgin Mary, one may initially observe iconographic similarities. The doctrines of the Assumption or Dormition of Mary relate to her death and bodily assumption to Heaven. However, their reaction often rests upon a misapprehension not only of what this particular title of Mary signifies but also of who Jesus was—and of what their own theological forebears, the Protestant Reformers, had to say regarding this doctrine. Bernadeane Carr, STL, Censor Librorum, August 10, 2004, IMPRIMATUR: In accord with 1983 CIC 827 Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, and Lutherans venerate the Virgin Mary. The high priest Zachariah blessed Mary and informed her that God had magnified her name among many generations. ... St Alphonsus Liguori praised the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass as the best way to Honor God. Belief in the corporeal assumption of Mary is a dogma of the Catholic Church, in the Latin and Eastern Catholic Churches alike, and is believed as well by the Eastern Orthodox Church,[66][67] the Coptic Orthodox Church, and parts of the Anglican Communion and Continuing Anglican movement. The group was condemned as heretical by the Roman Catholic Church and was preached against by Epiphanius of Salamis, who wrote about the group in his writings titled Panarion. [223] Similarly, Catholics do not worship Mary as a divine being, but rather "hyper-venerate" her. [170] Mary holds a singularly distinguished and honored position among women in the Quran. She is mentioned in the Quran as the daughter of Imran. [196] In the 2nd century, as part of his anti-Christian polemic The True Word, the pagan philosopher Celsus contended that Jesus was actually the illegitimate son of a Roman soldier named Panthera. “When, therefore, they ask, ‘Is Mary mother of man or Mother of God?’ we answer, ‘Both!’ The one by the very nature of what was done and the other by relation” (The Incarnation 15 [A.D. 405]). Therefore the Lord Jesus Christ is God. [60] Following Jerome, the Church Fathers interpreted the words translated as "brother" and "sister" as referring to close relatives. "[117] The Orthodox celebrate the Dormition of the Theotokos, rather than Assumption. [61][62], The hagiography of Mary and the Holy Family can be contrasted with other material in the Gospels. Theos—we get the word Theology—means God and tokos—from the Greek word tiktó—means “to bear” or “to give birth.” The Gospel of Matthew describes Mary as a virgin who fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah 7:14, mistranslating the Hebrew word alma ("young woman") in Isaiah 7:14 as "virgin", though. What more glorious than she whom Glory Itself chose?” (The Virgins 2:2[7] [A.D. 377]). [26] The Catechism of the Catholic Church states: "The Church's devotion to the Blessed Virgin is intrinsic to Christian worship. The Roman Catholic Church frequently refers to Mary as "The Mother of God." 'God-bearer'). Why do we honor Mary and call her Blessed? Her mother, according to al-Tabari, is called Hannah,[12] which is the same name as in … [127] Thus the idea of respect and high honor for Mary was not rejected by the first Protestants; but, they came to criticize the Roman Catholics for venerating Mary. University of South Florida Libraries Catalog. 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