[45], Leopold also introduced radical reforms to the system of neglect and inhumane treatment of the mentally ill. On 23 January 1774, the legge sui pazzi (law regarding the insane) was established, the first of its kind to be introduced in Europe, allowing steps to be taken to hospitalize individuals deemed insane. The Grand Duchy of five is divided into eight regions.These are: 1. This page was last modified on 21 September 2015, at 03:12. In December 1859, the Grand Duchy was joined to the Duchies of Modena and Parma to form the United Provinces of Central Italy, which were annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia a few months later. [10], Alessandro continued to rule Florence for another two years until he was murdered on January 1, 1537 by his distant relative Lorenzino de' Medici. Leopold himself died in 1792. In Tuscany, Leopold II sanctioned a liberal constitution; and instituted a liberal ministry. [17] Cosimo commissioned the architect Vasari to build the Uffizi, as offices for the Medici bank, continuing the Medici tradition of patronage of the arts. Cosimo I de Medici, painted by Giorgio Vasari (1563–1565, Palazzo Vecchio) Cosimo I was a great patron of the arts and commissioned works on a regular basis. He revamped the taxation and tariff system. Marie's father Stanisław I of Poland ruled Lorraine as compensation for his loss of the Kingdom of Poland. Leo XI died less than a month later, but fortunately for the Medici his successor Pope Paul V was also pro-Medici. [41] On July 9 1737, Gian Gastone died; the last male Medici of the Grand Ducal line.[42]. In 1847, Leopold, following the death of the then-incumbent Duchess of Parma, Marie Louise of Austria, and the secret Treaty of Florence (1844), annexed the Duchy of Lucca, (A state created solely to accommodate the House of Bourbon-Parma until they could re-assume their Parmese sovereignty). Hale, J.R.: Florence and the Medici, Orion books, London, Allessandro is usually considered an illegitimate son of. However, the constitution was so radically new that it garnered opposition even from those who might have benefited from it. Florence starts as an Oligarchic Republic, this means that upon ruler death the player will be able to decide which government form to choose. Their union wrought a high level of discontentment, but despite the tension they had three children, Ferdinando, Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici, Electress Palatine and the last Medicean grand duke of Tuscany, Gian Gastone de' Medici. [3], Initially, Tuscany was ruled by the House of Medici until the extinction of its senior branch in 1737. During the Holy League of 1571, Cosimo fought against the Ottoman Empire, siding with the Holy Roman Empire. [21] Cosimo II's twelve-year reign was punctuated by his contented marriage with Maria Maddalena and his patronage of astronomer Galileo Galilei. by Julius Caesar. He was the son of Giovanni dalle Bande Nere and Maria Salviati, from a side branch of the Medici family, and… [4], Francis Stephen of Lorraine, a cognatic descendant of the Medici, succeeded the family and ascended the throne of his Medicean ancestors. [55], Over time, the Medici acquired several territories, which included: the County of Pitigliano, purchased from the Orsini family in 1604; the County of Santa Fiora, acquired from the House of Sforza in 1633; Spain ceded Pontremoli in 1650, Silvia Piccolomini sold her estates, the Marquisate of Castiglione at the time of Cosimo I, Lordship of Pietra Santa, and the Duchy of Capistrano and the city of Penna in the Kingdom of Naples. Every grand duke after Leopold resided in Florence. [16] Ferdinando was forced to marry his heir, Cosimo, to Archduchess Maria Maddalena of Austria to assuage Spain (where Maria Maddalena's sister was the incumbent Queen consort). Ferdinand aligned Tuscany with Austria.[49]. The duchy of Tuscany When Spanish arms restored the Medici to Florence in 1530, they bestowed on them the title “dukes of Tuscany.” After the assassination of the first duke, Alessandro, in 1537, Cosimo I (ruled 1537–74) succeeded him and developed a strong absolutist state. His descendants ruled, and resided in, the grand duchy until its end in 1859, barring one interruption, when Napoleon Bonaparte gave Tuscany to the House of Bourbon-Parma (Kingdom of Etruria, 1801–7). The duchy was founded after Emperor Charles V restored Medici rule to Florence in 1530. It abolished the age-old signoria (elective government) and the office of gonfaloniere (titular head-of-state elected for a two month-term) and replaced it with three institutions: Even after Alessandro's accession, Imperial troops remained stationed in Florence. Tuscany was overcome with religious orders, all of whom were not obliged to pay taxes. Tuscany was divided into two main administrative districts: the stato nuovo (the new state) consisting of the former Republic of Siena, and the stato vecchio (the old state), the old Republic of Florence and her dependencies. Following the collapse of the Napoleonic system in 1814, the grand duchy was restored. [37] Europe heard of the perils of Tuscany, and Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor asserted a remote claim to the grand duchy (through some Medici descent), but died before he could press the matter. [23], Ferdinando was obsessed with new technology, and had several hygrometers, barometers, thermometers, and telescopes installed in the Pitti. He died at Innsbruck from a stroke in 1765; his wife pledged the rest of her life to mourning him, while co-ruling with her son, and Francis' imperial successor Joseph II. On 22 March 1860, after a referendum that voted overwhelmingly (95%[5]) in favour of a union with Sardinia; Tuscany was formally annexed to Sardinia. If Leopold's line were to become extinct, it would revert to the main line. [5] The plan was about to be approved by the powers convened at Geertruidenberg when Cosimo abruptly added that if himself and his two sons predeceased his daughter, the Electress Palatine, she should succeed and the republic be re-instituted following her death. 1. During the War of the League of Cognac, the Florentines rebelled against the Medici, then represented by Ippolito de' Medici, and restored the freedom of their republic. It formally created a hereditary monarchy, abolished the age-old signoria (elective government) and the office of gonfaloniere (titular ruler of Florence elected for a two-month term); in their place was the consigliere, a four-man council elected for a three-month term, headed by the "Duke of the Florentine Republic" (and later the Grand Duke of Tuscany). Cosimo frequently paid the Holy Roman Emperor, his feudal overlord, high dues. [12] Cosimo's reign was one of the most militaristic Tuscany had ever seen. The Duchy of Florence (Italian: Ducato di Firenze) was an Italian principality that was centred on the city of Florence, in Tuscany, Italy. [40] In 1731, the Powers gathered at Vienna to decide who would succeed Gian Gastone. A provisional republic was established in his stead. The Grand Duchy was then dissolved, and replaced by the Kingdom of Etruria under the house of Bourbon-Parma, in compensation for their loss of Duchy of Parma. The said revolution toppled the throne of France, and caused disarray across Europe. The Senate, composed of forty-eight men, chosen by the constitutional reform commission, was vested with the prerogative of determining Florence's financial, security, and foreign policies. Pope Clement VII, himself a Medici, appointed his relative Alessandro de' Medici as Duke of the Florentine Republic, thereby transforming the Republic of Florence into a hereditary monarchy. Together with Florence, Siena was the chief economic, political, and cultural center of Tuscany in the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance. The document in question was officiated on the 27th of that month. Cosimo I died in 1574 of apoplexy, leaving a stable and extremely prosperous Tuscany behind him, having been the longest ruling Medici yet. "[5], Following the Republic's surrender in the Siege of Florence, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor issued a proclamation explicitly stating that he and he alone could determine the government of Florence. [15] He commanded the draining of the Tuscan marshlands, built a road network in Southern Tuscany, and cultivated trade in Livorno. [5], Civil flag and civil ensign(1815-1848, 1849-1860), State flag with Lesser Coat of arms(1815-1848, 1849-1860), State flag with Great Coat of arms(1765-1800, 1815–1848, 1849-1860)[44], Flag of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany(1848-1849), Lesser Coat of arms(1815-1848, 1849-1860), Great Coat of arms(1765-1800, 1815–1848, 1849-1860)[44], Flag of Grand Duchy of Tuscany(1562-1737), Former Italian state (1569–1801; 1815–1859). [49] Despite his merits, most his subjects still dismissed him as a foreigner. [16] To augment the Tuscan silk industry, he oversaw the planting of Mulberry trees along the major roads (silk worms feed on Mulberry leaves). In the 19th century the population of the Grand Duchy was about 1,815,000 inhabitants. Cosimo founded the port city of Livorno and allowed the city’s inhabitants to enjoy freedom of religion. It was only with Austrian assistance that Leopold could return to Florence. [11] The administration of the state was delegated to bureaucrats. Ferdinand was the son of the incumbent Grand Duke, and Grand Duchess Maria Louisa. Ruling house of the Duchy of Florence 1533–69 Elevated to Grand Dukes of Tuscany: New title. [16] To strengthen the new Tuscan alliance, he married the deceased Francesco's younger daughter, Marie, to Henry IV of France. Florence, with a population of 20, 000, was a robust regional capital. On April 17, 1555, Florence and Spain occupied the territory of Siena, which, in July 1557 Philip II of Spain bestowed on Cosimo as a hereditary fiefdom. This led to a regency of Ferdinand's grandmother, Dowager Grand Duchess Christina, and his mother, Maria Maddalena of Austria. [16] Ferdinando sponsored a Tuscan colony in America, with the intention of establishing a Tuscan settlement in the area of what is now French Guiana. Italian nationalism exploded in the post-Napoleonic years, leading to the establishment of secret societies bent on a unified Italy. The Duchy of Florence was an Italian principality that was centred on the city of Florence, in Tuscany, Italy Cosimo experienced several personal tragedies during the later years of his reign. The Grand-Duchy of Tuscany See also the heraldry of Tuscany.. Brief History; The Republic of Florence (to 1530) The Medici grand-dukes of Tuscany (1569-1737) The Habsburg grand-dukes (1737-1801, 1814-60) and the Kingdom of Etruria (1801-07) Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor proclaimed Alessandro de' Medici, ruler of Florence "for his lifetime, and after his death to be succeeded by his sons, male heirs and successors, of his body, by order of primogeniture, and failing them by the closest male of the Medici family, and likewise in succession forever, by order of primogeniture. [28] Ferdinando II died in 1670, succeeded by his oldest surviving son Cosimo. [14] In 1542, the Imperial troops stationed in Florence by Charles V were withdrawn. [14] Francesco is best remembered for dying on the same day as his second wife, Bianca Cappello, spurring rumours of poisoning. For more than a century the artisans and labourers of Renaissance Florence turned the city into their own 'empire' during times of public festivity. The city of Florence was established in 59 B.C. Gian Gastone had no say in events and had become quite attached to the Spanish Infante. He was forced out by the French during the French Revolutionary Wars, first in 1799, and then after the Treaty of Aranjuez (1801), becoming instead Elector of Salzburg, ruling the territory of the former archbishopric. Chiarugi and his collaborators introduced new humanitarian regulations in the running of the hospital and caring for the mentally ill patients, including banning the use of chains and physical punishment, and in so doing have been recognized as early pioneers of what later came to be known as the moral treatment movement.[46]. Neither of Cosimo's two sons was a suitable heir; Ferdinando was an alcoholic and epileptic, while his younger son, Gian Gastone, according to historian Paul Strathern, was not appropriate material[clarification needed] for the role of sovereign. In 1569, the Pope declared Cosimo grand duke of Tuscany. Galileo used the pulse of his heart to keep the time and was surprised to discover the lamp’s oscillation period was unaffected by the arc’s size of oscillation. Reggion of Grosseto 1. He later proved through an experiment that the period taken by a swinging pend… While he was in a service in the cathedral one day, he was distracted by a bronze lamp hanging from the ceiling. [36] Meanwhile, the state's capital, Florence, had become full of beggars. [52] In April 1532, the Pope convinced the Balía, Florence's ruling commission, to draw up a new constitution. Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 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